BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF BUCKWHEAT FLAVONOIDS

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877313-2022-06-04
Issue: 
6
Year: 
2022

I.A. Gneusheva
Ph.D. (Eng.), Associate Professor, Departmant of Biotechnology,
Oryol State Agrarian University named after N.V. Parakhin (Orel, Russia)
E-mail: obc1-2010@mail.ru
I.Yu. Solokhina
Ph.D. (Biol.), Associate Professor, Departmant of Biotechnology,
Oryol State Agrarian University named after N.V. Parakhin (Orel, Russia)
E-mail: solohinairina@yandex.ru
A.V. Lushnikov
Chief Specialist, Center for Collective Use "Oryol Regional Center for Agricultural Biotechnology",
Orel State Agrarian University named after N.V. Parakhina (Orel, Russia)
E-mail: alex_de-vil@mail.ru

Buckwheat flavonoids are represented by a wide range of biologically active substances of polyphenolic nature. Rutin and buckwheat anthocyanins have the greatest biological activity. Purpose of the study. Evaluation of the biological effects of the polyphenolic complex of buckwheat. Material and methods. Rutin, anthocyanins, a preparation of polyphenolic nature isolated from flowers and vegetative mass of buckwheat were used as objects of research. Sensitivity to antibiotic drugs and the minimum inhibitory concentration were determined by the disco-diffusion method and the method of serial dilutions. Osmotic resistance of E. coli was evaluated densitometrically with varying concentrations of NaCl. Adhesive activity was determined by the number of bacterial cells attached to erythrocytes. The activity of β-galactosidase was determined by the change in optical density at a wavelength of 405 nm. Protease activity was analyzed by incubating a biomaterial with trichloroacetic acid, followed by the calculation of activity according to the calibration curve with tyrosine. The activity of the superoxide dismutase enzyme was determined by spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 550 nm, and the activity of catalase at a wavelength of 240 nm. The carbohydrate content was determined by reaction with phenol in the presence of sulfuric acid at a wavelength of 440 nm. The quantitative content of reducing substances was determined by Veshnyakov. The peptone content was quantified by reaction with a biuretic reagent. The total protein content in the biomass was determined by Bradford. Protein analysis by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel under denaturing conditions. Results. A study of the antibiotic activity of buckwheat flavonoids and preparations based on them was conducted, the minimum concentrations of rutin and anthocyanins from buckwheat flowers were established - 6.13 and 2.62 mcg/ml, respectively, which inhibit the growth of E. coli bacteria ATCC 25922. When co-incubating β-lactam antibiotics with buckwheat flavonoids, it was found that the active components rutin from flowers and anthocyanins from the vegetative mass of buckwheat reduce the minimum inhibitory concentration of amoxicillin by an average of 34-36%, meropenem by 20-22%, cefazolin by 16-18%. According to the results of the study of the effect of buckwheat flavonoids on osmotic resistance and adhesion of E. coli, it was shown that rutin from buckwheat flowers caused an effective decrease in these indicators. The activity indicators of E. coli peptone utilization, as well as the specific activity of proteases decreased under the action of rutin and anthocyanins. Phenolic compounds - rutin and anthocyanins contribute to a decrease in the utilization of carbohydrate components and the specific activity of β-galactosidase during co-incubation with isolate E. coli. Anthocyanins from the vegetative mass of buckwheat have antioxidant activity, causing a significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusions. When studying the biological properties of buckwheat flavonoids, the specificity of the action of their component composition was established. The most active compounds of the polyphenolic complex of buckwheat have been identified - rutin from flowers and anthocyanins from vegetative mass, which have bacteriostatic activity against E.coli, due to prooxidant action and violation of the integrity of the bacterial cell wall. In addition, rutin and anthocyanins exhibit a weak bacteriostatic effect against phytopathogenic pathogens. Buckwheat anthocyanins, inducing oxidative stress, subsequently cause a violation of the integrity of E. coli DNA. Compounds of the phenolic complex of buckwheat with pronounced biological activity can be recommended as components for the creation of antiseptic solutions for external use.

Keywords: 
buckwheat
flavonoids
rutin
anthocyanins
E. coli
adhesion
electrophoresis
β-galactosidase
protease activity
superoxide dismutase
catalase

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