SCREENING METHODS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY (REVIEW). PART I. IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS-PRODUCERS OF ENZYMES

Issue: 
4
Year: 
2016

M.B. Yakovleva
Ph.D. (Biol.), Leading Research Scientist, All-Russian Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow)
E mail: atir188@rambler.ru
Z.K. Nikitina
Dr.Sc. (Biol.), Professor, Chief Research Scientist, All-Russian Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow)

The review is devoted to the topical direction regarding the detection of various enzymes including hydrolytic enzymes (proteinases, cellulases, phospholipases, pectinases, etc.), as well as enzymes different mechanism of action (laccase). Most of the methods based on the cleavage of the specific substrate (cellulose, phospholipids, proteins, pectins, etc.) introduced into the nutrient medium as the main source of organic material and energy, and registration of zones of enlightenment (or less opacity) of the medium, detectable visually. For greater clarity, the authors of experimental works in some cases, add dyes, for example for cellulase Glucola or solutions of Congo red, which makes it easier to delineate the zone of enlightenment. The material presented covers the experimental work of domestic and foreign authors for the period of the 90s of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The advantage created by the screening methods is their simplicity, which allows you to quickly search for the producers among the large number of microorganisms and to identify the most productive and promising of them for further study at the decision of applied and fundamental research. It should be emphasized that the enzyme preparations are widely used in various fields of national economy such as agroindustry, food industry, medicine, veterinary medicine and cosmetology, wastewater treatment, removal of various contaminants, which increases the need for new microorganisms- producers.

Keywords: 
Key words: screening methods
microorganisms
enzymes.