PHYSICO-CHEMICAL METHODS OF INVESTIGATION THE OBJECT OF ANALYSIS THE ENVIRONMENT (OVERVIEW)

Issue: 
8
Year: 
2016

E.V. Salnikova
Ph.D. (Chem.), Associate Professor, Head of Department of Chemistry, Orenburg State University
E-mail: salnikova_ev@mail.ru
A.V. Skalny
Dr.Sc. (Med.), Professor, Director of the Institute of Bioelements, Orenburg State University;
All-Russian Scientific Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow)
E.A. Osipova
Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, Orenburg State University
T.I. Burceva
Ph.D. (Biol.), Senior Research Scientist, Scientific and Production Laboratory of Cellular Technologies,
Orenburg State University

Anthropogenic pollution has become a major cause of environmental degradation areas. The changes taking place in the biosphere, ahead of the pace of development of methods of forecasting and monitoring its condition. In this regard, the need for new data on the transformation of the elements of nature, as well as evaluation of the impact of certain chemical substances on the environment. It is known that in biological systems, playing a great role very small number of elements, called «microcells». They take an active part in the processes of human life, have a positive effect on the reproduction and cell growth, life expectancy. Some of these are detrimental to the contrary man. In this situation, increased requirements for chemical analysis of biological objects to their quality. To determine the trace elements used two groups of analytical techniques: electrochemical and spectrometric methods. The combined general name of physical and chemical methods of analysis. They are used to detect, quantify and studying the properties of chemical elements and substances. These methods are based on measuring the physicochemical characteristics of the study object with special instruments. In a review article presents current methods for the determination of trace elements in different environmental objects and biosubstrates. Considered analytical capabilities and metrological characteristics of methods, their advantages and disadvantages. Determined the most convenient and sensitive methods for trace element analysis. It was revealed that the optimal use of the polarographic methods of analysis and atomic emission spectroscopy. Mass spectrometry method with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) is very effective for the analysis of biological substrates.

Keywords: 
Key words: trace elements
environmental objects
research methods.