MOLECULAR GENETIC ASPECTS OF MELANOMA PART 1. HEREDITARY SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES AND MAIN SIGNALING PATHWAYS ACTIVATED IN MELANOMA CELLS

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Issue: 
1
Year: 
2017

L.F. Gulyaeva
Ph.D. (Biol.), Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Molecular Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis,
Research Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics SB RAS (Novosibirsk)
N.N. Mazurenko
Ph.D. (Biol.), Professor, Head of the Oncogenomics Laboratory of Institute of Carcinogenesis,
N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center (Moscow)
N.E. Kushlinskii
Ph.D. (Med.), Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Head of the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center (Moscow)

Melanoma – the most dangerous malignant skin disease with a high risk of recurrence and metastasis. Molecular biological studies carried out in the last decade have dramatically changed our understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis melanocytes. This review examines how hereditary factors predisposing to melanoma (rare alleles of genes CDKN2A and CDK4, MITF and BAP1 mutation) and somatic genetic abnormalities involved in the carcinogenesis of melanoma. This mutation in the genes that cause hyperactivation of RAS-MAPK (BRAF, NRAS, MEK, NF1) and PI3K- (PTEN, AKT) signaling pathways and gene tyrosine KIT, ERBB4 kinase receptors that activate signal transduction in the cell. We also consider the role of cAMP and NF-κB in melanomageneziz.

Keywords: 
Key words: melanoma
genetic disorders
RAS-MAPK- and PI3K-signaling pathways
cAMP
NF-κB carcinogenesis

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