COMPARISON OF VARIETIES AND POPULATIONS MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA L. ON BIOCHEMICAL AND KARIOLOGICAL INDICATORS

Номер журнала: 
9
Год издания: 
2017

F.M. Hazieva Ph.D. (Biol.), Head of Agrobiologic and Selection Department, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow) E-mail: vilar.6@yandex.ru, O.A. Bykova Ph.D. (Agrical.), Director, North Caucasus Branch of All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Krasnodar region, Stanitsa Vasyurinskaya) E-mail: vilar8@rambler.ru, A.Y. Anikina Research Scientist, North Caucasus Branch of All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Krasnodar region, Stanitsa Vasyurinskaya) , Y.P. Korobov Research Scientist, North Caucasus Branch of All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Krasnodar region, Stanitsa Vasyurinskaya), N.Y. Svistunova Ph.D. (Biol.), Leading Research Scientist, Agrobiologic and Selection Department, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow) E-mail: aloevera09@mail.ru, T.E. Samatadze Ph.D. (Biol.), Leading Research Scientist of Agrobiologic and Selection Department, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants; Associate Professor, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Moscow)

The paper presents the results of biochemical analyzes of various chemotypes of Matricaria chamomilla of 3 varieties Podmos-kovnaya, Sibirskaya bizabolol'naya and Nasten'ka, as well as Polish and German populations cultivated in the North Caucasus. De-pending on the variety, population and weather conditions, the yield of chamomile inflorescences in the region is on average 0.8 to 1.3 t/ha. It has been established that the main components of chamomile essential oil of the pharmacy studied samples are: trans-β-farnesene, α-bisabolol oxide A, α-farnesene, α-bisabolol oxide B, hydroxy α-bisabolol, germacren D, oxybisabolol and chamazulene. The content of essential oil in all populations of Matricaria chamomilla made from 0.64±0.09% in the Sibirskaya bizabolol'naya variety to 0.80±0.08% in the Polish population. The greatest amount of α-bisabolol oxide A and chamazulene in the Podmoskovnaya variety, α-bisabolol in the German popula-tion was found. All studied varieties of chamomile had chamazulene as an essential oil. The amount of chamazulene in essential oil ranges from 4.0±0.6% to 8.1±0.7%, which is evidence of good quality of medicinal raw materials. As a result of karyological studies formulas of karyotypes of both diploid and tetraploid varieties and populations of chamomile pharmacy were compiled. According to the results of the biochemical analysis of the qualitative composition of the essential oil, it was concluded that the German and Polish populations of chamomile pharmacy being diploid in the conditions of the North Caucasus are not inferior to tetra-ploid forms, so they can be further included in the breeding process with the goal of creating a sort of chamomile, recommended for cultivation in Western Ciscaucasia.

Ключевые слова: 
Key words: Matricaria chamomilla
varieties
population
chemotypes
selection
chromosomes.