G.V. Drozdov
Student, Yaroslavl State Medical University
E-mail: mockkind@mail.ru
M.I. Kovaleva
Ph.D. (Biol.), P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University
S.V. Tihomirova
Ph.D. (Biol.), Yaroslavl State Medical University
A.A. Trubnikov
Ph.D. (Pharm.), Yaroslavl State Medical University
A.G. Diunov
Ph.D. (Med.), Yaroslavl State Medical University

Methylparaben (Nipagin, Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) is widely used as a preservative in food, cosmetic and pharmacy industries. However, despite the long history of its application, the safety of parabens is questioned by many specialists and health organizations. The goal of the research was to evaluate a possible mutagenesis effect of methylparaben in an assay of aninduction of dominant lethal mutations on Drosophila melanogaster and ana-telophase analysis on Allium test.These methods are included in the list of standard genetic toxicology tests which are recommended by WHO for primary screening of chemicals for mutagenic activity. For the research methylparaben was dissolved in distilled water in the concentrations of 0,4%; 0,02% and 0,01%. Mutagenic activity of methylparaben was studied on microscope slides which were prepared by squashing root stained with atsetoorsein. The frequency of induced chromosomal aberrations on ana- and telophase was also calculated on those slides. Amitotic modified activity was estimated on the same slides by changes of mitotic index. The concentration of 0,4% completely suppresses the roots growth. With lower concentrations a statistically significant (p < 0,05) decrease of mitotic index was found, in the concentration 0,02% − to 1,62%±0,21% , and in the concentration 0,01% − to 1,43%±0,14% compared with the control variant − 8,37%±1,15. The level of aberrations was higher than reference values − 1,81 ± 0,6, at the concentration 0,02% - 4,59 ± 2,36. However, the data are statistically insignificant and might be connected with proliferation suppression. Methylparaben effect on Drosophila melanogaster males after mating caused a decrease of egg production due to the concentrations increase. A fertility drop was over 30% at the concentration 0,4%. At the same time a statistically significant (p ≤ 0,01) increase of dominant lethal mutations from 1,25%±0,03 in control to 2,59%±0,03% in 0,02% and to 2,49%±0,03% in 0,4% was found. The data comparison, collected by both test-systems, showed the absence of minimal effect in the 0,1% concentration. With an increase of the concentration to 0,02% and higher, the frequency of genetic violations grew. Methylparaben decreases mitotic index of meristematic tissue, therefore it has Mitotic toxicity and also increases the amount of dominant lethal mutations and fertility drop in Drosophila melanogaster

methyl paraben
chromosome aberration
dominant lethal mutations
Drosophila melanogaster