THE BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ARNICA FOLIOSA NUTT. WHEN GROWING IN NON-CHERNOZEM ZONE RUSSIA

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877313-2018-02-08
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Issue: 
2
Year: 
2018

M.Yu. Grjaznov PhD (Biol.), Senior Research Scientist, Agrobiology and Breeding Department, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow) E-mail: selectionvilar@yandex.ru S.A. Totskaya Ph.D.(Biol.)., Senior Research Scientist, Agrobiology and Breeding Department, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow)

Arnica foliosa Nutt. – a perennial, usual plant of the Aster family (Asteraceae). Homeland of Arnica foliosa Nutt. – steppe areas of North America. In Central Russia it flowers in June and July for 1,5-2 months. For the structure of plant Arnica foliosa Nutt. the characteristic layering: the first layer is comprised of a inflorescence of the central stems and first order branches, the second and subsequent tiered – inflorescences of lateral shoots and higher orders of branching. The first form of the inflorescence and seeds of the central shoots then shoots the first and subsequent orders of branching and lateral shoots. The larger the order of branching, the later the seeds ripen. The aim of this study was identified the phenotypic variability of Arnica foliosa Nutt. for example populations cultivated in All-Russia Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. The studies were conducted in Moscow region in the field of All-Russia Re-search Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in 2015-2016 According to long-term observations in Moscow region Arnica foliosa Nutt. grows well and develops. The life cycle of Arnica foliosa Nutt. long and 5-8 years or more. Plants of this species reach their maximum development in the second year of vegetation. On the basis of the observations the timing of the onset of phenological phases of Arnica foliosa Nutt. plant the first and second years of life were identified calendar. Morphological and economic-valuable signs studied. The highest phenotypic variability marked by such characteristics as the diameter of the basket, the number of flower clusters on 1 shoot; the amount of phenolic compounds in dry inflorescences, leaves and stems. The coefficients of variation are 21,2%; 25,6%; 25,8%; 22,1% and 23.5%; respectively. The Arnica foliosa Nutt. variability of individual characteristics in different years of research has remained relatively stable and declined slightly in either direction from the average coefficient of variation. The high and stable level of traits variability indicates that their variation is largely due to genetic factor. The high variability of some traits suggests that the populations of Arnica foliosa Nutt. includes many biotypes. This, in turn, in-dicates the possibility for the purposeful selection of economically valuable forms.

Keywords: 
medicinal crops
Arnica foliosa
phenological observations
operating substances

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