THE MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE RESTORED VEGETABLE COVER OF THE FOCI OF DEFLATION IN THE PASTURES OF NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877313-2018-10-19
Issue: 
10
Year: 
2018

L.P. Rybashlykova Ph.D. (Agricul.), Leading Research Scientist, Federal Research Center, integrated construction of Agroecology and protective afforestation Russian Academy of Sciences (Volgograd) E-mail: ludda4ka@mail.ru

The article presents the species composition of medicinal flora and features of vegetation distribution in pasture ecosystems 30 years after the phytomelioration of the North-Western Caspian. It is established that in the composition of phytocenoses of forest pastures in the restored territories, forage species dominate -56.7%, the share of medicinal – 7.2%, ruderal and poisonous -15.9% and 5.0%, respectively. Medicinal species were found to be 1.5–3 times smaller, ruderal 1.5-3 times more than the values recommended for sustainable exploitation of pasture ecosystems. This ratio of ecological groups indicates a high anthropogenic load, unfavorable hydrothermal conditions and the consequences of frequent fires. Analysis of the composition of ecological groups of forest pastures shows that after the restoration of pastures is incomplete adaptation of flora, as there is a high proportion of ruderal species, but in areas where the practice of gentle grazing or a ban on grazing (more than 2-3 years) increases the proportion of medicinal species to 10.6%. The number of medicinal species also increases under the protection of shrub plantations to 11.4%, where they become difficult to access for the hooves of animals. Medicinal species are most sensitive to grazing, they do not withstand grazing load and fall out of the grass stand if the grazing regime is not observed. The problem of preserving populations of medicinal plants is fully connected with the problem of biodiversity conservation. To restore and preserve the medicinal vegetation of the pastures is needed is a comprehensive system of measures for environmental management.

Keywords: 
North-West Pre-Caspian Region
pasture
flora
centers of deflation
phytomelioration
biodiversity
vegetation
medicinal plants

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