V.B. Khobrakovа Dr.Sc. (Biol.), Associate Professor, Head of the Laboratory, Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS (Ulan-Ude, Russia) E-mail: Ya.G. Razuvaeva Dr.Sc. (Biol.), Senior Research Scientist, Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS (Ulan-Ude, Russia) E-mail: A.V. Khalzanova Post-graduate Student, Banzarov Buryat State University (Ulan-Ude, Russia) E-mail: D.N. Olennikov Dr.Sc. (Pharm.), Senior Research Scientist, Laboratory of Medical and Biological Researches, Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS (Ulan-Ude, Russia) B.P. Shobolov Post-graduate Student, Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS (Ulan-Ude, Russia) E-mail:

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Silene jeniseensis and Silene repens dry extracts on structure of mice thymus and spleen at cyclophosphamide immunosuppression. Materials and methods. The experiments were carried out on F1 (CBAxC57Bl/6) mice. Immune deficiency was simulated by a single intraperitoneal introduction of cyclophosphamide in the dose 250 mg/kg. S. jeniseensis and S. repens dry extracts in the dose 100 mg/kg were administered to ani-mals for 14 days intragastrically against cyclophosphamide. Morphological studies of the thymus and spleen were performed on day 16 after the ex-tracts administration. The lobule area, cortex and medulla widths, cells density and composition of the cortex were measured in the thymus. The rela-tive area of the white and red pulp was determined in the spleen. Results. S. jeniseensis and S. repens extracts limited the development of destructive processes in the mice thymus: lobule area was by 23 and 20% higher, the cortico-medullary ratio was by 28 and 25% higher. Cells density was higher in the cortical layer, due to a decrease in the number of de-structive thymocytes and an increase in the number of mitotically dividing cells, blasts and large lym-phocytes. The white pulp total area increased by 27 and 16% against the background of S. jeniseensis and S. repens extracts introduction. The mantle and marginal zones formed in the lymphoid folli-cles, which indicates of the lymphocyte differentiation processes restoration.Conclusions. S. jeniseensis and S. repens extracts limited the development of pronounced involutive processes in the immune organs at cyclophos-phamid immunosuppression.

Silene jeniseensis Willd
Silene repens Partin
dry extract

  1. Zibareva L.N., Lafon R., Munkhzhargal N., Ivanova N.A. Identification of phytoecdysteroids in some species of the genus Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae). Bulletin of the Tomsk State University. 2008; 307:157–160.
  2. Munkhzhargal N., Zibareva L.N., Lafont R., Pribytkova L.N., Pisareva S.I. Investigation of ecdysteroid content and composition of Silene repens indigenous in Mon-golia and introduced into western Siberia. Russian journal of bioorganic chemistry. 2010. 36 (7): 923–928; doi: 10.1134/S1068162010070216.
  3. Günter E.А., Ovodov Yu.S. Polysaccharides of cell cultures of Silene vulgaris. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 2007; 43 (1): 84–90; doi: 10.1134/S0003683807010152.
  4. Ghonime M., Emara M., Shawky R., Soliman H., El-Domany R., Abdelaziz A. Immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage functions and antioxidant activities of 11 plant extracts. Immunol Invest. 2015; 44(3): 237–252; doi: 10.3109/08820139.2014.988720.
  5. Ghonime M., Eldomany R., Abdelaziz A., Soliman H. Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of three herbal plants growing in Egypt. Immunopharmacol. Immunotox-icol. 2011; 33(1): 141–145; doi: 10.3109/08923973.2010.487490.
  6. Olennikov D.N. Ecdysteroids of Silene repens from Eastern Siberia. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2019; 55 (4): 770–772; doi: 10.1007/s10600-019-02807-3.
  7. Olennikov D.N. Silenerepin – A new C-glycosylflavone from Silene repens. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2019; 56 (3): 423–426; doi: 10.1007/s10600-020-03053-8.
  8. Olennikov D.N., Kashchenko N.I. New C,O-Glycosylflavones from the Genus Silene. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. – 2020; 56(6): 1026–1034; doi: 10.1007/s10600-020-03220-x.
  9. Olennikov D.N., Kashchenko N.I. Phytoecdysteroids from Silene jenisseensis. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2017; 53(6): 1199–1201; doi: 10.1007/s10600-017-2239-1.
  10. Khobrakova V.B., Khalzanova A.V., Olennikov D.N., Pavlova S.I., Abidueva L.R. Immunomodulatory activity of dry Silene jeniseensis WILLD extract in experimental immunodeficiency. Pathological Physiology and Experimental Therapy. 2020; 64(1): 113–117.
  11. Budatsyrenova A.Ts., Khalzanova A.V., Tugarina Yu.A., Khobrakova V.B., Abidueva L.R. Prospects for the use of herbal remedies as immunomodulators. Mongolian Journal of Integrated Medicine. 2021; 9(3): 206.
  12. Kvaratskhelia A.G., Klochkova S.V., Nikityuk D.B., Alekseeva N.T. Morphological characteristics of the thymus and spleen under the influence of factors of various origins. Journal of Anatomy and Histopathology. 2016; 5(3): 77–83.
  13. Makalish T.P. Morphological and functional features of the spleen under the influence of factors of various genesis on the body. Tauride Medico-Biological Bulletin. 2013; 16(1): 265–269.
  14. Sapin M.P., Khobrakova V.B., Kaktursky L.V., Grigorenko D.E., Erofeeva L.M., Nikolaev S.M., Zhamsaranova S.D., Nikolaeva I.G. Changes in the microanatomy of the thymus of mice under the influence of a dry extract of the five-leaf shrub under conditions of azathioprine immunosuppression. Pavlova. 2001; 1-2: 120–128.
  15. Bobrysheva I.V. Changes in the ultrastructure of the thymus of white rats after the introduction of cyclophosphamide. Bulletin of the Voronezh State Medical Univer-sity. 2013; 12(4): 63–69.
  16. Gaidai D.S., Katelnikova A.E., Kryshen K.L., Gaidai E.A., Gushchin Ya.A., Makarova M.N. Development of a model of immunosuppression in rabbits caused by intra-venous administration of cyclophosphamide. Laboratory animals for scientific research. 2019; 2; doi: 10.29296/2618723X-2019-02-02.
  17. Lebedinskaya E.A., Lebedinskaya O.V., Godovalov A.P., and Prokudin V.S. Immunomorphological features of the thymus of rats against the background of the in-troduction of cytostatics in the experiment. Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research. 2016; 12(1): 12–14.
  18. Bobrysheva I.V. Morphological reactivity of the spleen of rats of different age periods during immunosuppression. Journal of Siberian Medical Sciences. 2015; 6:53.
  19. Kashchenko S.A., Zolotarevskaya M.V. Morphometric indicators of the spleen of rats after the introduction of cyclophosphamide. Ukrainian morphological almanac. 2011; 9(2):31–33.
  20. Goldina I.A., Markova E.V., Orlovskaya I.A., Toporkova L.B., Kozlov V.A. Corrective effects of the original complex of bioflavanoids in cyclophosphamide-induced immune disorders. Medical Immunology. 2020; 22(6): 1111–1120.
  21. Zheleznova A.D., Zheleznov L.M., Shtil A.A., Frolov B.A. Morphological manifestations of the protective effect of milliacin in the organs of immunogenesis under the action of methotrexate. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. 2007; 144(10): 458–463.