GLUCOGENIC AND KETOGENIC EFFECTS IN THE LIGHT OF INTRODUCING THEIR SKELETONS INTO KREBS CYCLE

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877313-2022-05-01
Issue: 
5
Year: 
2022

A.V. Malinovsky
Process Engineer, Special Design and Technology Bureau "Biofizpribor",
Branch of FSUE "EPM" FMBA of Russia (St. Petersburg, Russia)

After catabolism of all amino acids became known, attempts to make up a scheme of ways of introducing amino acids’carbon skeletons in different stages of oxydative transformations in Krebs cycle were made several times; amino acids having been united in groups. However, all schemes which are known so far have some faults particularly referring to glucogenic or ketogenic effects of one or another amino acid. Moreover, the conclusion to which the scientists came with reference to this effect, do not always correspond to the scheme. Faults both in the sceme and conclusions concern-ing glucogenic and ketogenic effects of amino acids are not admissible; these effects can be clearly observed in case of diabetes: introduction of glu-cogenic amino acids into the organism reduces the severity of ketosis whereras that of ketogenic increases it. In the present paper a scheme of introducing amino acids’carbon skeletons into Krebs cycle, specified on the basis of modern data of amino acids’ transformation, and conclusions of glucogenic or ketogenic effects of one or another amino acid that fully correspond to the scheme are given. The re-sults should be taken into account when dealing with diabetes and some other diseases.

Keywords: 
diabetes
amino acids
glucogenic effect
ketogenic effect.

References: 
  1. Bol'shaja medicinskaja jenciklopedija. Izdanie vtoroe. M.: Sovetskaja jenciklopedija. 1961; t. 21; st. «Okislenie biologicheskoe».
  2. Lenindzher A. Biohimija. M.: Mir. 1976.
  3. Biohimija: Ucheb. dlja medicinskih vuzov pod red. E.S. Severina. M.: GJeOTAR. 2015.
  4. Bol'shaja medicinskaja jenciklopedija. Izd. 2-e. M.: Izd-vo medicinskoj literatury. 1956; t. 1; st. «Azotistyj obmen».
  5. Bol'shaja medicinskaja jenciklopedija. Izd. 2-e. M.: Sovetskaja jenciklopedija. 1961; t. 21; st. «Oksiprolin».
  6. Rudzit V.K. Triptofan. Monografija. M.: Medicina. 1973.
  7. Djegli S., Nikol'son D. Metabolicheskie puti. M.: Mir. 1973.
  8. Bol'shaja medicinskaja jenciklopedija. Izdanie tret'e. M.: Medicina. 1974; t. 1; st. «Azotistyj obmen».
  9. Malinovskij A.V. Obladaet li treonin ketogennym dejstviem? Voprosy biologicheskoj, medicinskoj i farmacevticheskoj himii. 2020; 6:34.
  10. Pokrovskij A.A. Rol' biohimii v razvitii nauki o pitanii. M.: Nauka. 1974.
  11. Watanabe R., Fujimura, S., Kadowaki, M., Ishibashi, T. Effects of dietary threonine levels on the threonine-degrading enzyme activities and tissue threonine related amino acid concentration in rats. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn.).1998. 69. 108–116.
  12. House J.D., Hall B.N., Brosnan J.T. Threonine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002; 281. Е1300–Е1307.
  13. Nagao K., Bannai M., Seki S., Mori M., Takahashi M. Adaptational modification of serine and threonine metabolism in the liver to essential amino acid deficiency in rats. Amino Acids. 2009. March.
  14. Badawi A.A-B. Kynurenine Pathway of Tryptophan Metabolism: Regulatory and Functional Aspects. Int. J. Tryptophan. Res. 2017; 10. 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/1178646917691938
  15. Lenindzher A. Biohimija. M.: Mir. 1985.
  16. Malinovskij A.V. Shema i vyvody Lenindzhera nuzhdajutsja v utochnenijah. Bioorganicheskaja himija. 2022; 48(1): 53–62.