DOES THREONINE POSSESS ANY KETOGENIC ACTION?

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877313-2020-06-06
Issue: 
6
Year: 
2020

A.V. Malinovsky Engineer-technologist Biofizpribor, Branch of Federal Medical-Biological Agency (St. Petersburg, Russia) E-mail: info@biofizpribor.ru

With diabetes the glucogenic or ketogenic character of one or another amino acid reveals itself more distinctly. The introduction of the former into the organism decreases the ketosis indication, whereas that of the latter increases this meaning.Threonine is conventionally considered to be the glucogenic amino acid like phenylalanine, tyrosine and isoleucine. As it is stated in the present paper, in the process of evolution a man on the genetic level lost the ability to the synthesis of threoninedehydrogenase — a ferment which can be found with many animals and which could participate in transformation of threonine to acetyl — koa, and therefore to ketone bodies. Thus, conclusion about the full absence of ketogenic action with man can be made.

Keywords: 
diabetes
threonine
the glucogenic action
the ketogenic action

References: 
  1. Uajt A., Hendler F., Smit E., Hill R., Leman I. Osnovy biohimii. M.: Mir. 1981 (Uajt A., Hendler F., Smit Je., Hill R., Leman I. Osnovy biohimii. M.: Mir. 1981).
  2. Voet D., Voet J.G. Biochemistry. 2nd ed. New York. Wiley. 1995.
  3. Garret R.H., Grisham C.M. Biochemistry. Orlando. Saunders College Publishing. 1995.
  4. Degli S., Nikol'son D. Metabolicheskie puti. M.: Mir. 1973 [Djegli S., Nikol'son D. Metabolicheskie puti. M.: Mir. 1973 (in Russ.)].
  5. Neuberger A. Glycine formation from L-threonine. Comp. Biochem. 1981; 19A: 257-303.
  6. Bird M.I., Nunn P.B. Measurement of L-threonine aldolase activity in rat liver. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1979; 7: 1274–1276.
  7. Yeung, Y.G. Threonine aldolase is not a genuine enzyme in rat liver. Biochem. J. 1986; 237: 187–190.
  8. Pagani R. L-allothreonine and L-threonine aldolase in rat liver. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1991; 19(3): 3465.
  9. Darling P. B., Grunov J., Rafii M., Brookes S., Ball R.O., Pencharz P.B. Threonine dehydrogenase is a minor degratative pathway of threonine catabolism in adult humans. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2000; 278: 877-884.
  10. Schirch I., Gross T. Serine transhy-droxymethylase Identification as the threonine and allothreonine aldolases. J. Biol. Chem. 1968; 243: 5651-5655.
  11. Ogawa H., Gomi T., Fujioka. M. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase and threonine aldolase are they identical? The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 2000; 32: 289-301.
  12. Pokrovskij A.A. Rol' biohimii v razvitii nauki o pitanii. M.: Nauka. 1974. [Pokrovskij A.A. Rol biohimii v razvitii nauki o pitanii. M. Nauka.1974 (in Russ.)]
  13. Watanabe R., Fujimura S., Kadowaki M., Ishibashi T. Effects of dietary threonine levels on the threonine-degrading enzyme activities and tis-sue threonine related amino acid concentration in rats. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn.). 1998; 69: 108-116.
  14. House J.D., Hall B.N., Brosnan J.T. Thre-onine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002; 281: E1300-E1307.
  15. Nagao K., Bannai M., Seki S., Mori M., Takahashi M. Adaptational modification of serine and threonine metabolism in the liver to essential amino acid deficiency in rats. Amino Acids. 2009. March.
  16. Zhao X.H., Wen Z.M., Meredith C.N., Mat-thews D.E., Bier D.M., Young V.R. Threonine ki-netics at graded threonine intakes in young men. Am. J. Cln. Nutr. 1986; 43: 795-798.
  17. Edgar A.J. The human L-threonine-3-dehydrogenase gene is an expressed pseudogene. BMC Biochem. 2002; 18(3).
  18. Chuanchin H., Hao G., Jiaxu W., Weiguang L., Yide M., Mian W. Regulation of L-threonine dehydrogenase in somatic cell repro-gramming. Stem. Cells. 2013: 31: 953-965.
  19. Winkle L.J.V., Gallet V., Iannaccone P.M. Threonine appears to be essential for proliferation of human as well as mouse embryonic stem cells. Cells and developmental biology. 2014. May 2. Article 18/1.
  20. Wurtman R.J. L-threonine for regulating glycine levels in the brain and spinal cord. Euro-pean patent specification. 1986. Publication Number: 0 028 257 B1.
  21. D’Mello J.P.F. Aspects of threonine and glycine metabolism in the chick (Gallus domesti-cus). J. Nutr. 1973; 15(6):. 357−363.57 B1.