Comparative study of the essential oil composition of pine buds and microstrobils (Рinus sylvestris l.)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877313-2022-01-01
Issue: 
1
Year: 
2022

S.A. Erdyneeva Post-graduate Student, Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Systems, Baikal Institute of Nature Management Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ulan-Ude, Russia) E-mail: esssa198013@gmail.com V.G. Shiretorova Ph.D. (Tech.), Senior Research Scientist, Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Systems, Baikal Institute of Nature Management of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ulan-Ude, Russia) L.D.Radnaeva Dr.Sc. (Chem.), Professor, Chief Research Scientist, Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Systems, Baikal Institute of Nature Management of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ulan-Ude, Russia)

Aim of the research. Comparative study of the essential oil composition obtained from pine buds and microstrobiluses (Pinus sylvestris L.), growing in Buryatia. Material and methods. The pine buds and microstrobils samples was collected in during May−June 2019−2020 in background areas, and nearby Ulan-Ude. Essential oil was obtained by pharmacopoeial method 2 − hydrodistillation. The content of essential oil was determined using volumetric method. The qualitative composition and relative quantitative content of the components of essential oils was identified by gas-chromato-mass spec-trometric method. Results. The yield of essential oil from pine buds was 0.67−0.75%, from microstrobils − 0.39−0.53% calculated to absolutely dry raw material. The main components of buds and microstrobils essential oil are: α-pinene (8.0−20.4%), β-pinene (8.1−12.5%), β-myrcene (5.5−12.4 %), 3-carene (6.5−16.8%), limonene + β-pellandrene (18.3−20.4%), terpinolene (1.0−2.1%); caryophyllene (0.8−2.0%), germacrene D (0.3−1.9%), α-murolen (0.5−1.9%), γ-cadinene (0.5−2.1 %), δ-cadinene (0.7−5.6%), T-murolol (0.1−3.4%), α-cadinol (0.1−4.1%); dehydroabietane (0.2−1.0%). It can be noted that the content of α-pinene in microstrobils is higher (2 times) than in the buds. The content of sesquiterpene and diterpene compounds such as germacrene D, cadinens, T-murolol, α-cadinol, dehydroabietane in buds essential oils of the is 1.5-2 times higher than in microstrobils, which may be due to the presence of resinous substances in the buds. Samples of essential oils from pine trees growing nearby Ulan-Ude are characterized by an increased content of oxygen-containing terpenoids due to the intensification of oxida-tion processes catalyzed by pollutants. Essential oils of the buds and microstrobils of Scots pine from Buryatia have a higher level of α-pinene (8.0−20.4%) compared to the populations of the Tomsk region (6.9−11.3%), and less 3-carene − 6, 5−16.8% in Buryat samples, 21.9−27.2% − in Tomsk, which may be due to climatic conditions of growth. It should be noted that 3-carene has a pronounced allergenic effect, and therefore, such an essential oil with a high component content should have limited use. Conclusion. The chemical composition of essential oils of pine microstrobils has been studied for the first time. A comparative analysis with essen-tial oil of pine buds, which is a pharmacopoeial raw material with proven efficacy, has been carried out, its sufficient content and similarity of the component composition have been shown. The essential oil of microstrobils with a high content of α-pinene is of practical interest for use in therapeu-tic and prophylactic purposes. The use of microstrobils as a source of pollen, and as an independent raw material after its separation, solves the prob-lem of rational use of plants, due to the production of not only pollen, but also other products containing biologically active substances.

Keywords: 
Pinus sylvestris L.
essential oil
buds
microstrobils

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