VITAMIN E AND ITS STATUS IN VEGETARIANS AND VEGANS

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877313-2022-06-02
Issue: 
6
Year: 
2022

A.V. Galchenko
Junior Research Scirntist, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)
ORCID: 0000-0001-7286-5044
E-mail: gav.jina@gmail.com
R. Ranjit
Resident, Department of Oncology and Radiology, Medical Institute,
Рeoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) (Moscow, Russia)
ORCID: 0000-0002-4255-4197
E-mail: rajesh.ranjit@mail.ru

Vitamin E is one of the fat-soluble vitamins. Currently, eight of its forms have been studied - these are α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols and α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocotrienols. α-tocopherol has the greatest metabolic activity, since it binds most efficiently to serum carriers and is quickly delivered to the liver in or-der to be incorporated into lipoproteins. Vitamin E is one of the most significant elements of the body's antioxidant defense. By preventing blood lipoproteins from free radical oxidation, it re-duces the risk of atherosclerosis. Moreover, it averts platelet aggregation. In this way, vitamin E protects us from cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin E is also an immunomodulator, which has a significant effect on lymphocyte function. Like other hydrophobic vitamins, tocopherols and tocotrienols can accumulate in tissues and cause toxic effects. The most pronounced manifestation of hypervitaminosis E is platelet dysfunction and hemorrhage. Vegetable oils provide the majority of the dietary vitamin E. In particular, sunflower oil is one of the richest sources of vitamin E. Largely due to the fact that sunflower oil is common in Eastern Europe, vitamin E deficiency is quite rare in this region, which, however, cannot be said about population of North America or Southern Europe, where corn and olive oils are generally consumed, respectively. Higher consumption of vegetable oils and oilseeds provides vegans with large amounts of vitamin E. Nonetheless, serum α-tocopherol concentrations are often low in those dietary groups. Primarily, this is associated with lower level of serum lipids in vegans because blood lipoproteins contain the ma-jority of α-tocopherol. In case of vegans, the lower lipid level results lower vitamin E. Taking all these into account, the assessment of the serum α-tocopherol:cholesterol ratio comes to the fore. Even considering all the facts, there is no significant preponderance of this ratio among vegans and vegetarians. This is probably due to the fact that subjects from both plant-based and omnivorous groups in most studies had plasma lipoproteins satu-rated with vitamin E. However, this issue requires further research.

Keywords: 
tocopherol
tocotrienol
α-tocopherol:cholesterol
antioxidant
atherosclerosis
platelet aggregation
plant-based.

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